Tom Massart


I graduated with a master's degree in European Studies in June 2020 at the Catholic University of Louvain. I am passionate about the European Union and linguistics. I started my PhD at ULB (Cevipol) in January 2021 under the supervision of Prof. Amandine Crespy. 



From January 2021: PhD candidate in Political and Social Sciences under the supervision of Professor Amandine Crespy, Université libre de Bruxelles (ULB), member of the Centre d'Étude de la Vie Politique (CEVIPOL).

2018-2020: Master 120 in European Studies with specialization: Governance and European Societies, Université catholique de Louvain (UCLouvain), mention at the end of the master (June 2020): Magna cum Laude

2015-2018 : Bachelor's degree in French and Romance languages and literature, Spanish orientation, minor ("mineure") in European studies, mention at the end of the bachelor's degree (June 2018): Magna cum Laude

2015 : Graduate of the Certificat d’études de l’enseignement secondaire supérieur in Dutch immersion (CESS)

Professional experience

  • September 2020 - February 2022 : Understanding Europe Belgian Trainer - European Youth Parliament of Belgium (EYP).
  • September 2020 - September 2021 : Vice Head of the UCLouvain delegation to the Canada-Quebec Europe Parliamentary Simulation (Specque).
  • December 2020 – January 2021 : Research Assistant in the Qualidem Research Project (ERC grant) under the supervision of Professors V. van Ingelgom and C. Dupuy. 
  • October 2020 – December 2020 : Research Assistant - member of the European research project Exceptius at UCLouvain under the direction of Professor Claire Dupuy.
  • February 2020 – June 2020 : Mentor for the course Contemporary political regimes (LPOLS1212) at UCLouvain University.
  • January 2018 – June 2020, Mentor for the Introduction to Language Sciences course (LFIAL1530) at UCLouvain University.


Languages :

  • French (mother tongue)
  • Dutch (B2-level, secondary education in Dutch immersion)
  • English (professional proficiency)
  • Spanish (professional proficiency)
  • German (B1)


  • Massart, T., Vos, T., Egger, C. e.a. (2021).The Resilience of Democracy in the Midst of the COVID-19 Pandemic", Politics of the Low Countries, 2,113-137
  • Massart, T. (2022). Le semestre européen, un outil d’intégration ou de fragmentation : Approche institutionnaliste du « tournant » représenté par le Semestre européen au sein de la gouvernance économique européenne. Politique européenne, 75, 68-82.


  • ECPR General Conference (2021), online
  • Ideas (Brussels), 2022
  • EUSA (Miami), 2022
  • SASE (Amsterdam), 2022
Domaines d'intérêt

The European Union, European economic governance, the Economic and Monetary Union, Discourse analysis

Présentation des recherches

It is conventional in the European Studies literature to analyse the nature of the European Union through the tension between supranationalism and intergovernmentalism. This opposition sheds light on the specific structures of the EU institutions and allows for an analysis of the policy outcomes they deliver. However, within economic governance, this traditional divide takes another form. It is characterised by a tension over the perceived legitimacy and appropriateness of the EU's overall economic intervention. In fact, since the beginning of the European project, economic policies have been structured according to either a regulatory or an investment-oriented mode of governance, with a predominance of the regulatory model, especially since the 1990s — which makes it easier for Member States to delegate powers to the European level. Nevertheless, the predominance of regulation has gradually decreased in recent years to include increasingly ambitious policies and investment instruments (such as the Investment Plan for Europe, the Green Deal, NextGeneration EU).

 It is therefore necessary to elucidate the mechanisms that underlie this hybridisation and influence the choice of one mode of governance over another. The phenomenon of hybridisation involves the oscillation within economic governance between three modes of governance and the gradual rise of investment-oriented policies to meet the growing challenges (climate, migration, geopolitical and health) facing the EU. In this respect, the concept of hybridisation allows to understand that the creation of new investment instruments such as the Recovery and Resilience Facility (RRF) is not the result of a paradigm shift, but rather of the tension between investment and regulation, which have tended in recent years to favour the former over the latter.  The purpose of my research is to assess the modalities of hybridization. What drives the hybridisation of European economic governance and the selection of one mode of governance over another?